For EUCYS 2011 have been approved 87 projects from 38 countries:
Austria (3 projects)
Belarus (2 projects)
Belgium (1 project)
Bulgaria (3 projects)
Canada (1 project)
China (3 projects)
Czech Republic (3 projects)
Denmark (2 projects)
Egypt (3 projects)
Estonia (3 projects)
European Schools (1 project)
Finland (1 project)
France (2 projects)
Georgia (2 projects)
Germany (3 projects)
Greece (2 projects)
Hungary (3 projects)
Ireland (1 project)
Israel (2 projects)
Italy (2 projects)
Latvia (3 projects)
Lithuania (3 projects)
Luxembourg (1 project)
Malta (1 project)
New Zealand (1 project)
Norway (2 projects)
Poland (3 projects)
Portugal (2 projects)
Russia (3 projects)
Slovakia (3 projects)
Slovenia (2 projects)
Spain (3 projects)
Sweden (3 projects)
Switzerland (3 projects)
Turkey (3 projects)
Ukraine (2 projects)
United Kingdom (3 projects)
United States Of America (3 projects)
Eva Christine Schitter
Tastes are Different - Genes Too! (Biology)
Is it genes that influence our sense of taste? This question, which is especially relevant in medicine and the food and drinks industry, has been investigated by the students. They tested the genetics of taste using a molecular-biological experiment. This involved several hundred people tasting defined concentrations of bitter constituent as well as food containing the natural sweetener, Stevia, and the healthy, but bitter tasting, Aronia berry or choke berry. The tasters were also asked which of the samples they preferred and liked least. The research team could then divide the tasters into three groups: people with extreme and average senses of taste and people with literally no sense of taste. After DNA samples had been taken from all the tasters, the students attempted to locate a specific gene among the 25TAS2R genes, which are responsible for the perception of bitterness.
Pavitter Pal Singh Josan
Air Vision (Computing)
Josan Pavitter and Özdemir Gökhan are on the way to revolutionizing shop window advertising with their project "Air Vision". The two students have come up with the idea for a Touchless Screen System for window displays that reacts to movements without contact and opens up a whole range of possibilities for virtual displays. The control system developed by the students enables interaction and generates floating images, hence the name Air Vision. The prototype uses a projector that projects images onto the inside of the window, which has been applied with a transparent projection film. A special camera is mounted in the ceiling of the window display. The camera transmits infra-red waves and detects reflected waves using a sensor. The device calculates the depth of each individual pixel based on the different cycle times. For programming, the students chose the advantages of Qt, a program that offers exceptional optical and functional performance in supporting Windows Multitouch applicati.
Chromosomal Integration of HHV-1 (Medicine)
Barbara Schamberger and Kerstin Zimmer applied DNA analysis to investigate the secret behind cold sores. They focused on Herpes Simplex Virus-1, a virus that docks onto cells and transmits its DNA to the host cell. Reproduction starts, the skin is stretched until it breaks and the virus spreads – painful and annoying blisters are the result. Is there a way of protecting yourself from them, or are they hereditary? In order to differentiate between the genome and infection with the virus, the students chose young interviewees because the probability of HSV-1 infection increases at that age. Saliva samples were used to detect the infection. The research students expected to obtain information on inherited virus DNA from hair follicle cells, which are not normally infected by the herpes virus. Through the release of a certain glycoprotein from the cell core, which is used to form the hair sheath, a suitable primer could be created that plays a major role in the reproduction of DNA.
The Composite Panel with Adjustable Acoustic Properties (Physics)
Often same rooms are used for the various purposes. In most cases acoustic suitability of similar rooms for tasks in view neglect or don't reflect at all on it. The purpose of my work: working out the composite panel providing poss. of its acoustic properties changing without dismantles, remotely and with a wide range of regulation. The research technique has been developed. 12 fiberboard panels with different acoustical prop., construction by definition of factor of a sound absorption (a0), 2 disseminating panels have been created. Ultrasonic gauging’s of a sound speed in 8 materials; calculations of factor of a sound absorption for ~ 100 combinations of materials are spent. More than 2500 gauging’s have been spent. The concept of the composite panel with adjustable a0 is created. The patent application on useful model is submitted (No. u20110272). Research allows dynamic change of a0, on the average: ~50 % in a freq. range 32 to 16.000 Hz, and on ~100 % on freq. ν1 = 500 Hz; ν2 = 200.
Periodical Fractions and Sequences (Mathematics)
In this work I considered periodicity of rational fractions and sequences (ai), constructed by the way p, q, r ÎN and p isn’t divisor of r and qаi ≡ r (mod рi), in p-ary number system. I don’t consider as periods (0) and (p–1). In this work I made criterion of periodicity of rational fractions in p-ary number system. Also I found rational fraction’s period (if it is periodical) and preperiod lengths and period. I studied properties of (ai) and showed that most of them are equal to properties of. I showed that if (ai) is periodical so is. I made criterion of equality of (ai) and periods. As corollary from the work I made algorithm of solving congruence qаi ≡ r (mod рi) when i is rather big.
Nowadays a lot of energy is still lost as so called “non –profitable heat”. This is thermal energy with small temperature difference like cooling water and exhaust gases. The same kind of energy is abundant in the natural environment: solar heat, ocean currents, low geothermal activity. FROSTAL stands for Fully Rotational Stirloïd Alternator. This engine recovers the “lost heat” and transforms it in useful mechanical energy. It is based on the Stirling cycle but performs much better than the original design. With an exotic heat gathering system, a smart mechanism to turn this energy into dynamic rotation and his speed control, the FROSTAL is an easy applicable engine for every location where a small temperature difference is present.
DriveFreeZ - Driving Simulator (Computing)
DriveFreeZ is an open-source driving simulator, recreating the traffic conditions every driver experiences on the road. Its primary goal is to serve as a simulation tool for experts, working on road safety, as well as to provide an educational tool for novice traffic participants. The project takes advantage of modern methods for object-oriented programming, data storage and optimization processes, advanced platforms for building the layout of the city. The flexibility of the code permits developers to modify it and use it in their own work. Development by the authors is constantly underway, extending and improving the project's functionality. The graphics and physics cores of the application provide the realism of the surrounding world. DriveFreeZ's development concentrates on simulating the technical and physical aspects of vehicle movement, as well as the mental aspects of drivers' interaction, resulting in a highly satisfying driving simulation product.
Convex Sets Among Points in an Euclidean Space (Mathematics)
We consider the different methods of proving one interesting conjecture. A configuration is being constructed which leads to some new results. The following problem is a new generalization of an open problem in the discrete and computational geometry of Erdős-Szekeres type. Let r(n,k) denotes the minimum number of convex k-gons among n points in general position. With the help of geometrical apparatus we set and analyze bounds for r(n,k). A generalization of the problem in higher dimensional space is shown. The author's main contributions are proving that the number of convex k-gons r(n,k) ∈O(nk), considering ideas for computer proof of Erdős -Szekeres problem and introducing a higher dimensional equivalent. The ongoing research is focused on improving the bounds for r(n,k) and analyzing the feasibility of the conjecture of Erdős -Szekeres.
New Constructions Connected with Isogonal Conjugation.
'Isogonal' Triangles (Mathematics)
Let ΔABC be a triangle and k(O) is the circumcircle. Point P is an arbitrary point on the circle k, different of the ΔABC’s vertices and point X is also an arbitrary point, which doesn’t belong to circle k - we construct the isogonal conjugate points AXP, BXPand CXPof point P with respect to ΔBCX, ΔCAX and ΔABX. We call the triangles AXPBXPCXP’isogonal’ triangles of point X with respect to ΔABC. The loci of these triangles’ vertices are shown in the project. It is proven that all isogonal triangles from the set are similar to the pedal triangle of a given point with respect to the given triangle. It is proven also that the isogonal triangles of two inverse points with respect to the circumcircle are congruent. For each point from the plane of the triangle the respective generalized Napoleon’s triangles are constructed. They are similar to the pedal triangles of these points. Some characteristics of the isogonal triangles of remarkable triangle centers are given.
No Power, No Water, No Food, No Problem (Environment)
The purpose of this experiment was to test whether a biofilter for growing food in a confined space can breakdown pollutants and remove harmful bacteria from both grey water and sewage so that the water can be reused. A second objective was to show that biofilters can clean water, grow food, produce energy, and clean the air.
The Efficient Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria of Pear Black Spot Disease and the Effect of Disease Prevention (Biology)
This study aims at the problems of the resistance, infectivity and harmfulness of Pear Black Spot, and serious environmental pollution caused by chemical control, adopt the prevention by using bacteria and antibacterial substance they secreted. Through the soil microbial separation and purification, early antagonists screening, after antibacterial material screening and living pear prevention measurement, we can screen bacterial strains whose antibacterial material is with high metabolic ability and internal absorbable ability, and preliminarily discuss the properties and preventing mechanism of antibacterial material they produced. Screened bacteria strains have efficient antagonist effect, their antagonist spectrums are broad, and they have high environmental stability. The preliminary experiments indicate that these screened bacterial strains can largely reduce the incidence of Pear Black Spot, effectively control and cure of infected leaves and fruits.
Production of Valuable Sialic Acid from Trashed Chalaza of Hen’S Egg with Sialidase Produced by Newly Isolated Strain LXS6 (Biology)
Humans are genetically unable to produce sialic acid although it plays an important role in the biomedical functionsuch as anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, immunity enhancing. Whereas sialic acid is widely distributed in hen’s egg including yolk, albumen, and chalaza. The rapid developing in egg powder processing produces lots of chalaza. It is possible to apply such wasted chalaza as excellent sources of sialic acid production. In order to prepare the sialic acid from indissoluble chalaza of hen’s egg, one strain capable of dissociating sialic acid from chalaza was isolated from soil sample. This is an effective and environment-friendly process to produce sialic acid from industrial waste of chalaza. Such enzymatic production is an environment-friendly method because the pollution caused by solid waste was overcome and the valuable sialic acid was obtained.
Electronic Skateboarding Assistant (Engineering)
I love skateboarding. When a skater is practicing alone, he cannot observe himself for sure, thus unable to correct himself. Yet if he sees others making moves, he can tell what part others did wrong. So I decide to design a device to solve the problem. A 3-axis accelerometer is enough for my goal. By recording down the acceleration of the skateboard’s move, skaters can have a clear view of what he did and know where to correct. By comparing the data with the pro’s data, we can even acquire more information. It makes practicing more accurate and scientific. The Electronic Skateboarding Assistant is definitely a good news for the novice skaters!
Geometric Reconstructions of Gothic Monuments (Mathematics)
The objective of this work is to acquaint with basic gothic elements of geometric view and show right processes during reconstructions of these buildings of Gothic period on one of the Czech gothic monuments – basilica “Assumption Virgin Mary” in Brno. Specifically on window above the main portal of this basilica, which is complicated because of its traceries and we can see then master’s knowledge. Unfortunately, the most of technical plans of this basilica and other monuments, which need to be reconstructed, didn’t survived. We show some processes so gothic monuments can
have their origin meaning for next hundreds years.
Synthesis and Testing of Tetramethylhelquat (Chemistry)
This study reports a facile, three-step synthetic route to tetramethylhelquat - a model molecule chosen for the investigation of properties of a novel class of helical dications called helquats. Sonogashira coupling, N,N’-bisquaternisation and the key [2+2+2] cycloisomerisation lead to tetramethylhelquat without any involvement of chromatographic purifications. The developed synthetic procedure allows a multigram synthesis of tetramethylhelquat. This work also describes the ability of helquats to catalyse pharmaceutically attractive Povarov reaction. As helquats combine structural motifs of two interesting compound classes - helicenes and viologens - also their application potential is expected to be similarly rich. To this end, design of enantioselective catalysts, fluorescent dyes for microscopy, and biologically active species might benefit from the chemistry of helquats. The results of this study will be useful in further research of helquats.
Swarm Robotics Simulator (Computing)
Today's fields of artificial intelligence try to mimic the behavior of biological systems. We currently lack tools which define the algorithm to solving a given problem. For developing and testing new programs we need a virtual world with idealized conditions to simulate some unreal situations. The unreal simulations help us to discover new principles in the real world. This project describes an algorithm that solves a given problem and defines a method to solve it in the future. For developing I made a simulator, which is capable of performing simulations on many robots placed in virtual world. The simulator is a client-server application. Users control all simulations via the internet and view it in text or in 3D animation. The simulator simulated a population of robots, which did not know, how they can increase their fitness value. The mentioned algorithm successfully solved this problem very quickly. The virtual world helps us to develop new and better programs not only for robot.
Frederik Lindekilde Rasmussen
Magnus Vestergaard Laursen
Morten Risom Nielsen
Our project concerns the assembly of customer-assembly furniture. One problem is that disposable tools have to be used, which are often of an inferior quality. This makes it hard and time-consuming for the purchaser to assemble the furniture. If this tool is superfluous, the product will at the same time be cheaper and less environmentally injurious. Our solution is the incremental innovation Boltstrips, which is an innovative bolt and matching nut, functioning according to the same principle as a strip. The actual bolt has a number of grooves and in the nut are some small teeth. When the nut is lead down over the bolt, the teeth simply lock around the bolt and ensure that the nut cannot return. This movement can be effectuated by hand which makes assembly of customer-assembly furniture both more effective and user-friendly. Furthermore, we have developed several models, that enable Boltstrips to be used for different purposes and, most important of all, it can also be disassembled.
Pernille Neve Petersen
Enzymatic Browning in Bananas (Chemistry)
It is estimated that up to 30 % of the approx. 100 mil. Tons of bananas produced yearly are thrown away due to enzymatic browning. This browning process, in bananas, leads the oxidation of dopamine to the pigment melanin, and is catalyzed by polyphenol oxidases (PPO). In the light of new research, I have shown, using the fungus Aspergillus niger, that (1) PPO protects bananas against pathogens and therefore is a part of the bananas immune response, and (2) there is a link between the ripening of bananas and PPO activity. This previously undocumented work has required unique improvements of described related research methods, as well as designing and applying a novel system for determining the ripening of bananas. The results show that the activity of PPO is highest in brown bananas. It can therefore be concluded that over-ripe banana waste products contain a high potential in the medicinal industry for fighting human infections.
Azza Abdel Hamid Faiad
Production of Hydrocarbon Fuel by Catalytic Cracking of High Density Polyethylene Wastes (Environment)
It was estimated that the total consumption of plastics in Egypt is 1000,000 tones. This paper aims to present advantageous and environmentally friendly method of managing polyethylene plastic wastes, by converting them into fuel feed-stocks through catalytic cracking over different catalysts. Three experiments were designed with different three catalysts (clay-Y-zeolite-commercial aluminosilicate) with concentration 20% and the other parameters were fixed. Products were analyzed by gas chromatography. According to the results it was found that Commercial aluminosilicate catalyst gave the highest yields among these experiments while zeolite gave the lowest yields. This technology can provide an economically efficient method for production of hydrocarbon fuel namely: cracked naphtha of about 40,000 tons per year and hydrocarbon gases of about 138,000 tons per year equivalent to 78,000,000$.
The Miracle of Living by Termites (Environment)
The project aims to use the ecological niche of termite colonies which feed on paper product wastes for the benefit of humans. The project proposed using termites to produce hydrogen as a renewable energy source. Experiments were conducted using a bio-reactor constructed to grow a colony of termites on cardboard and sugar cane straw as food sources, at different temperatures and constant moisture conditions. Bio-reactor Soil analysis showed high potassium, phosphor and nitrogen contents. Experiments results showed that a medium sized colony (about 2 million termites) can produce about 227 liters of hydrogen per day. It was concluded that many environmental problems can be solved using termite colonies: paper products waste can be managed through termite digestion; soil present in the bio-reactor can be used as fertilizer; the hydrogen produced can be used as a renewable source of energy.
Yomna Yasser Mohamed
A Biofuel for the Poor (Environment)
The aim of this project is to produce a clean and green source of energy that could be easily accessible by the poor. And since most rural populations are farmers, my idea revolves around producing a bio-fuel, where all its ingredients could be manufactured locally. To stay away from the food chain, I have selected the Jatropha Plant to investigate whether its oil, methanol, and KOH, which are blended to make bio-diesel, could be produced using different parts of the plant. This project will also look into the design requirements of a local blending plant terminal, where the biodiesel could be produced around the Jatropha plantations.
The Abundance and Distribution of the Bristle Worm (Marenzelleria neglecta) and the Factors Influencing the Species in the Pärnu Bay Area (Biology)
The following research is focused on the invasive species of the bristle worm Marenzelleria neglecta, its distribution, and the factors that affect the species in Estonia in the Pärnu bay area. Brought here probably by the ballast waters of ships, M. neglecta has a great impact on the eco system, increasing the oxygen concentration in sediments and thus causing eutrofication in the area. M. neglecta as an unpretentious worm can displace native species in the zoobenthos. In this research three factors are compared in relation with the abundance of M. neglecta. The results show that M. neglecta prefers eutrophied areas to saltier waters with a lower trophic level. Secondly, the findings of the research show that Pärnu bay area is eutrophied enough to eliminate the competition for food between M. neglecta, M. balthica and H. diversicolor, with a few exceptions in the outer Pärnu bay. Eutrophication in Pärnu bay results in the increase of the biomass of all these species.
Growth Potential of Short Rotation Willow Cuttings (Environment)
In current research the early growth of short rotation willow cuttings was studied, since competition in short rotation coppices (SRC) can effect early production of coppice greatly. Cuttings of 4 clones were grown in laboratory conditions. The results showed significance between cutting diameter and biomass production. No connection between clone and shoot production was determined, however clones showed different root production in early growth. The addition of fertilizer to the growth environment showed positive effect on rooting but addition of SRC soil had negative effect on both rooting and shoot growth. In conclusion the suggested cuttings used in coppices should have large volume. Clones that have faster rooting (e.g. Tora) and pre-fertilization could be used for positive effects. Further studies in this subject are required for more efficient use of short rotation coppices.
Studies on Rail Vehicle Dynamics with Applications to Tramline Network (Physics)
In rail vehicle dynamics an important role in achieving safe and smooth ride is played by tram or railway track gauge. In this study the focus is on the influence of track gauge to vehicle dynamics and track geometry. Analytical methods based on the equations of vehicle motion were developed and implemented. Experiments of the three-dimensional dynamics of passenger train coaches were carried out on selected railway lines during trial runs. It was concluded that on standard gauge track the maximum allowable speed reaches only up to 10 km/h higher value compared to narrower gauge. The advantages of the standard gauge over the narrower ones were determined. The conclusion was made that in design of express tram lines or light rail systems the meter gauge (in Tallinn’s case 1067 mm) tracks can be considered as suitable alternatives for the standard gauge (1435 mm) tracks. The conclusion is valid for construction of new or upgrade of existing tram, light rail or railway lines worldwide.
Kite Based Wind Generation (Physics)
A wind generator has been built using a kite, which is smaller, cheaper and requires less maintenance than a modern Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. It can be placed in a wider range of locations and is easier to erect than a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. We settled on a design that used the horizontal movement of a kite while it was doing a ‘figure of eight’ to turn a DC motor which produced electricity. A mechanism was made which converted the side to side rotation of the kite into only one direction, which was then geared up significantly finally driving a generator. So far, the kite has been controlled by an RC system but advances have been made to teach an AI system to control it using a method called supervised learning.
Comparison of Three Finnish Berries as Sensitizers in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (Chemistry)
Harnessing solar energy in an efficient, low-cost way remains a challenge. Photoelectrochemical Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs or Grätzel cells) are proposed as an inexpensive, easy-to-manufacture alternative to conventional solar cells. The possibility of using common Finnish berries as dye-sensitizers in a DSC interested me. I wanted to know which of the three berries (strawberry, lingonberry and blackcurrant) was the most effective. A common food colorant in berries, anthocyanin, binds to the TiO₂ surface of the solar cell and absorbs incoming light to produce excited electrons. These electrons travel from the TiO₂ surface to the external circuit providing electric current. The energy conversion efficiency of the sensitized solar cells was measured to examine the effectiveness of the berries as sensitizers. In this empirical setup blackcurrant was the most suitable sensitizer for a DSC and it achieves the highest energy conversion efficiency of 0.0480%.
The Boule De Fort (Physics)
The "boule de fort" is a game from Anjou (a French region). The aim is to reach a little ball called the “maître” with bigger balls, which have a side heavier than the other. It is played on a curved court, which measure 20 by 7 m. The ball has curved trajectories. We studied them on a real court and on a model we made. So we understood the ball’s movements. Then, we tried to win a game by using a scientific method. We made several launches with different adjustments (initial speed, direction…) and we noted the landing point. So we knew how to launch the ball if we wanted it to go to a precise point. This method worked with a relative precision and to improve it, we recreated our model on a computer to make virtual launches.
How Can We Create a System Able to Solve a Rubik's Cube? (Engineering)
Everybody knows this famous puzzle created in the 1980s by Ernő Rubik, a Hungarian architect and design professor. 30 years after, it still fascinates people and especially these three French students who wanted to know if they were able to create a robot which could solve the Cube alone and which can be as efficient as robots we can see on the Internet. This project is about artificial intelligences and to study that, they build a robot able to solve the famous puzzle alone, without any help after someone gave him a mixed cube and ordered to set the puzzle in its solved state. To do that, the robot must be able to analyze, to calculate and manipulate the cube and that is what they worked on by programming an algorithm based on methods they use when they play with the Cube, by imagining a mechanical system able to do all the moves to manipulate the Cube and by creating a system of analyze and all the necessary to link all the components of the robot.
Autotransplantation of Spleen Tissue after Splenectomy (Medicine)
Our goal was to avoid negative effects caused by splenectomy and therefore work out the new method of curing spleen traumas. To find the best place for autotransplantation of spleen tissue, we studied morphological aspects of greater omentum. It should be noted, that we concentrated on the left side of omentum, since it was clear, that for our operation this would be the best place we could find in whole organism. Method we worked out is the following: when the spleen is cut off, healthy parts of it are saved and auto-transplanted in an artificial pocket of epiploon. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is followed by full adherence of tissue in case of partial reduction of autotransplantant. It is a very progressive method that gives us an opportunity to avoid imunodephicit. According to the results above it has a great potential to replace splenectomy as the main method of curing spleen traumas. It will be a very beneficial and safe method for surgeons and mainly for patients.
Exact Solutions of Interval Equations of the First Power (Mathematics)
In practice frequently it’s impossible to build an exact mathematical model of several physical processes. This motivates us to apply several approximation methods, in practice we have to find out numerals in non exact measuring conditions, for which it is effectively used the methods of interval arithmetic. In 1966 R.Moore initiated uncertainties study by the mathematical methods of interval analyses . Initially he tried to introduce arithmetic operations for uncertainties of interval types. That leads to solutions of numerous problems in computer science, financial analyses, biology etc. In the progress of internal mathematics great role played by E.Hansen  and K. Nickel . Main problem of this subject was that there were no formulas which could lead us to exact solutions of equations such as: After some work I have solved this problem and I will show it my topic.
The New Magic Formula for Eliminating Bad Breath: C42H70O35 (Chemistry)
Bad breath is a common problem. The cause is usually bacteria that decompose, e.g., food particles in the oral cavity. Chemically or biologically active substances can fight the bacteria—the odorous substances can be bound by absorption agents. Gabriel Salg and Nicolas Scheidig wanted to fight the primary cause of bad breath, hydrogen sulphide and its methyl compounds with so-called cyclodextrins. These are produced from starches, contain absorption agents and are approved for use as food additives. The deodorisers, which have not previously been used for treating bad breath, work wonders: after rinsing with the aqueous cyclodextrin solution, breath and even garlic odour disappears.
(Almost) Unit-Distance Points in the Polychromatic Plane - Colourings of the n-Dimensional Space (Mathematics)
In 1950, Edward Nelson sought to discover the minimum number of colours needed to colour all points of the plane, such that no two points with distance 1 have the same colour. A proof that this number lies between 4 and 7 can be delivered using only elementary methods, but better bounds are not known up to today. However, in this project, Fabian Henneke, Xianghui Zhong and Danial Sanusi show that even a colouring of the plane with 5 colours contains equally coloured pairs of points with distance 'arbitrarily close' to 1. For this, concepts originating from the mathematical field of topology are of unexpected help. They also treat generalisations of this setup to higher-dimensional spaces. But not only colourings of infinitely small points are interesting objects of research: they address colourings of cubic grids, applying these topological tools to prove a theorem related to the fact that the board game 'Hex' always ends with a winner.
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy of Coronene Molecules on Germanium (111) (Physics)
During an internship, Benjamin Walter investigated the interaction between coronene, an organic molecule and a germanium surface. Germanium has a crystalline structure and is a semiconductor. The young researcher posed the basic question: is it possible to synthesize graphene with this combination of materials? Graphene is a semiconductor-of-the-future that could revolutionize electrical engineering in the next 50 years. The 16-year old student performed his research with the aid of scanning tunnelling microscopy. He was able to show that creation of graphene was not possible with this technique. He also succeeded in uncovering relevant information on the geometric and energetic aspects of the interaction between molecule and substrate.
Virtual Representation Method, Medium and Device “All-Orama” (Computing)
The current invention, in the place of a real object, projects a virtual representation in a way that the spectator has the impression that the virtual representation constitutes an integral part of the real object. The virtual representation can be electronically saved and retreated from an electronic medium of storage, even some thousands of kilometers away.
Simulation of Development Conditions of the Truffle Fungus in an Electronically Controlled and Automated Indoor Environment (Biology)
"Simulation of development conditions of the truffle fungus in an electronically controlled and automated indoor environment" is an inquiring and innovative project developed after intense research and experimenting. After research and thorough reading we have established that if we have the ideal conditions in temperature, soil's pH, humidity etc. we can grow the truffle fungus. The thought was simple. "Why look for and not simulate these conditions?"
In closing we present to you today our practical view of a fully protected cultivation in a fully controlled simulated environment of the truffle fungus with no harm being done to our Unprotected and so poorly controlled environment.
Investigation of a Novel Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Sclerosis (Medicine)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. T lymphocytes play a key role in the pathogenesis of MS. Th1 cells is responsible for sustaining the autoimmune response. In contrast, Th2 cells reduce inflammatory reactions. The activation of lymhocytes is influenced by potassium channels. The inhibition of these channels leads to reduced activation of lymphocytes, and, therefore, to a decrease of the autoimmune reaction. I aimed to observe the differences in lymphocyte activation upon the inhibition of the above channels in the Th1, Th2, CD4 and CD8 subsets in MS compared to healthy individuals. Flow cytometry was used for the investigations. In MS, the reactivity of lymphocytes is increased compared to healthy controls. The activation of lymphocytes can be decreased in MS by blocking the investigated channels. However, not selectively enough, by having an effect on all investigated lymphocytes. Accordingly, further investigation is needed.
Soma Miklós Erdélyi
Medical Pocket Assistant (Computing)
If you witness an accident could you help the injured until the ambulance arrives? According to the sad statistics only a few people can help professionally. To improve the situation we have made an innovation: a first-aid program. It works on mobile phones as a webpage or as an installed application. After studying various first-aid books and discussing with experts, we drew the program's main database, the flow charts. Then we translated it into English and we made more than 100 pictures and figures. We tried our program on various devices. We didn't experience any problems on the 17 phones. According to our usability test all of our non-trained volunteers successfully applied the recovery position and the ambulance officers had positive opinion about the program too. Because of the positive feedbacks we fulfilled our requirements and hopefully we can save lives with the help of this program.
Audio Sliding Puzzle (Computing)
'Tilitoli' is a singleplayer logic board game. On the board, there are numbers and an empty field. You can replace the empty field with its neighbours. When the game starts, the order of the fields is random. You have to grade numbers (with moving the empty field). You win the game when the fields are in ascendant order and the last field is empty. The game is an audio game, but the feedback is audible rather than visual. The game itself exists in sound. The game consists of three levels, but the players can add others, so it can become more interesting. The fields can contain not only numbers, but any kind of texts that can be matched with numbers. A good example can be the districts of Budapest, where the order can be given according to the numbers of the districts. Although originally the audio games aimed at visually impaired users, I intended to aim at a wider range of users. The game develops similar skills, e.g. memory, logic and concentration.
Tennis Sensor Data Analysis: An Automated System for Macro Motion Refinemen (Computing)
Sensors capable of capturing audio, video, and inertial data (such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers) have become so inexpensive, they are often found in smart phones and even remote control toys. However, it is not easy to correlate the performance of an athlete to the huge volumes of raw data captured by such sensors. In this study, I collected and analyzed gigabytes of tennis sensor data. I discovered a technique for automatically distinguishing between 13 different tennis stroke types (e.g., distinguishing a forehand flat versus forehand topspin) using only inertial data with accuracy averaging over 96%, and implemented my technique as computer software. Previously published research was limited to classes of motion (such as forehand, backhand, serve). My findings are relevant to a wide variety of motion assessment scenarios in sports, physical therapy, and emergency responses.
The Influence of Georges Sorel's Political Thought on Italian Fascism (Social Sciences)
Georges Sorel (1847-1922) was a French philosopher and political theorist. Sorel's writings shaped the principles of a Marxist doctrine called revolutionary syndicalism. The syndicalists called on the proletariat to use trade unions to initiate a violent and immediate democracy-crushing revolution. The project analyzes the political theory of Sorel and his followers in France and in Italy, and tracks its development over time. This analysis is unique in showing that this development occurred in both countries in tandem, with the French developments triggering the Italian ones. Moreover, it shows how Italian fascist ideology and Mussolini’s views were based on syndicalism. By doing so, it links fascism and the political Left. This project promotes an understanding of fascism that transcends beyond the over-simplistic but commonly held view that fascism originated in the political Right. Hopefully, this insight would be useful in fighting future fascism.
Nerya Yair Stroh
Antileaks - a Device for Detection and Discontinuation of Leakages in Water Supply Systems (Engineering)
One of the difficult problems in the water economy is that of water losses in supply systems. The proposed approaches to treat this problem available today are inadequate and do not provide a comprehensive solution. The device we have built is designed to detect leakages in these systems and stop them. First, the system analyzes the consumer's average water consumption over a period of time based on a mathematical model. The system keeps measuring and analyzing the water consumption in real time. In case it detected a great deviation from the average or steady water consumption over a period of time it alert the consumer by cellular communication – and if necessary disconnects the leaking system from the water supplier. Additionally, the system can send data about the consumption to a nearby computer in wireless communication.
Andrea Emilio Amedeo Bracesco
Following Kepler's Path - an Estimate of Jupiter Mass (Physics)
This project was finalized at calculating the mass of Jupiter through observing the same four satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) which both Galileo and Kepler used to follow with their means almost 400 years ago. This project required several on-the-ground experiences at the Astronomical Observatory of Merate which greatly enriched our knowledge about some astronomical related subjects that had been studied at school. We started from getting and analyzing orbital data by professional telescopes and programs and this was exciting. Finally we ended up acquiring images by a commercial digital camera and writing down a few C++ codes and the results were surprising. We measured a value of Jupiter mass of 1,92*1027 kg that is very close to the best known estimate of that. More than that on Kepler’s path we found that the curiosity to explore and to practice are the real tools anyone approaching a scientific experience actually cannot miss.
L.C.T. - Low Cost Titrator (Engineering)
L.C.T. is a device which is able to perform one of the most important chemical analyses in laboratories: titration. Our prototype is able to perform an acid-base titration. Currently commercially available devices of this kind exploit ultra precise burettes driven by worm screws with extremely low pitch in order to combine the solution up to equivalence, with very high precision that is the measuring unit of pL. The nozzles of the latest ink-jet printers dispense ink droplets with a precision similar to pL. Noticing this analogy, we thought we could transform an ordinary ink-jet printer into a titrator able to execute the same functions. A substantial difference of the two automata is the cost: a printer costs about € 50.00, whilst a titrator is about €20,000.00. With our L.C.T. we have demonstrated not only that these printers would no longer be thrown away, but that they could be transformed into a “high precision titrator” and still maintain their ordinary function as printers.
Activity of Bats on the Lake Pape during the Autumn Migration Period (Biology)
Bats are an important part of biodiversity, but such a significant problem like the migration ecology of bats, has not been intensively studied. The research was done above the lake Pape, which is a protected wetland by Ramsar convention. Agnis and Kaspars chose this lake because it is an important feeding place during the migration of birds and they wanted to find out if the lake was an important feeding place for the migratory bat species. The boys worked out their own methodology; altogether they paddled more than 150 km during the practical part of the research. They did more than 140 recordings of bat sonar calls. Analysis was made during the period of three months and it was found what bats did above the lake Pape. This is the first of such a kind investigation not only in Latvia but also in Europe. As United Nations Environment Programme – EUROBATS has declared this year as “Year of the Bat”, special attention has been paid to the research of these animals.
Andris Alfrēds Avots
The Usage and Properties of Rigid Foam Polyurethane Material Derived from Tall Oil by using Cyclopenthane as a Blowing (Chemistry)
In our part of the world where the winters are cold a well insulated house can increase the living quality and reduce the heating costs. When people are insulating their houses they can also protect the environment by using polyurethane foam made from tall oil, which is a paper making by-product and a great alternative to polyols derived from oil because it’s cheaper and is a renewable resource. Until now freons were used to create rigid foam polyurethane materials for the thermal insulation of places that have a fire hazard. In the near future these freons could be banned. In our work we developed an alternative to using freons- we substituted freons with c-penthane. This substance is environmentally friendlier than the freon gases, but it is also flammable. This is the reason why it hasn’t been used. We fulfilled our goal of making a fire-resistant thermal insulation material by using c-penthane. The material we made is suited for the forming of sandwich panels or injection moulding.
Research and Application of Two-Side Active Organic Solar Battery based on Grätzel Cells (Physics)
Fossil fuels contribute to global warming, but the available solar cells based on silicon are with high CO2-footprint and expensive. The alternatives are organic solar cells, so Jana and Janis decided to investigate possible advantages of them. They chose Grätzel`s cell due to understandable design and possibility to create them without expensive technologies. To increase the cell efficiency they used organ metallic compound ruthenium complex – a dye which is necessary for electron transfer, TiO2 paste and TiO2 nanotube layer for faster electron transfer, and also a thermofilm, an epoxide and parafilm PM-992 to prolong the functioning of the Grätzel cell. The cells were made of glass coated with ITO or of the lavsan film coated with ITO, which makes them lighter, flexible and more available. The authors created the ‘’Sun tree” with the Grätzel cells on both sides and determined the increase of the efficiency with the research of the Grätzel cells’ photo electrical properties.
Mushroom Dyes for Tapestry Restoration (Chemistry)
The aim of our work is to investigate the possibility to apply mushroom dyes for tapestry restoration. During the first year of research the technology of imbuing with mushroom dyes was developed and fastness to washing of imbued yarns’ colour was investigated. The most relevant parameters of imbued museum textile – lightfastness, acidity, and mechanical strength – were examined during the second and the third years of research. It was also discovered that lightfastness of imbued yarns’ colour can be improved by covering them with antioxidants. The results of research proved that the mushroom dyes are well suitable for restoration and the developed imbuing techniques could be offered to restorers. Moreover, a palette of 118 colour shades was made from the yarns and fabrics imbued with mushroom dyes.
The Role of Houseflies (Musca domestica) in Spreading Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (Medicine)
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are one of the biggest challenges in the 21st century. At this time resistance mechanisms are already understood, however, how bacteria can spread around is still known little. The aim of my study is to investigate how domestic flies can transmit the most common antibiotic resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae from infected areas to residential premises. I discovered that houseflies cannot transmit bacteria distantly; therefore, the highest risk is for people living nearby to contaminated areas such as hospitals. My study shows, that the most contaminated houseflies reside in hospital premises, and when such fly lands on human skin, there is a high probability that the person will be colonized by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can cause complicated and sometimes fatal infections.
Protective Cases for Mobile Phones (Engineering)
EU citizens are concerned about potential effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from mobile phones on human health. The aim of our study is to design and test protective cases for mobile phones in order to reduce their EMR. We used stainless steel yarns to make 2 types of shielding materials: knitted (only from these yarns) and woven (conductive yarns were inserted as a mesh into woven fabrics). These fabrics were used to design protective cases for mobile phones. It was found that the most successful protective case can reduce EMR by 90% down to a safe level. We have noted that the distribution manner of conductive yarns in the fabric is very important for protective features of the material – a mesh of conductive yarns inserted in woven fabrics is more effective than knitted fabrics made entirely from the same yarns. Our tests show that the use of protective cases does not influence mobile phone connectivity or battery discharge time.
Defense of Garlic against Herbivore and Heavy Metals (Biology)
During a walk through a closed open-pit mining site in Luxembourg, we were astonished by the diversity of plants growing on a heavy-metal contaminated site. So we asked us if these plants possessed a defense system against different stressors like heavy metals and herbivore. We decided to carry out an experiment in a hydroponic setup, where garlic plants grew in 4 groups: one control group; one with a simulated herbivore (3cm cut from top-leaf); one group with heavy metal treatment (10µM Cu), one receiving both treatments. In regular intervals we measured the growth rate and electrolyte leakage (indicator of cellular damage) of leaves. Results showed that copper inhibits growth. Plants manage a punctual herbivore attack. Most interestingly with the two factors combined, it seemed that the herbivore had a beneficent effect on growth, which was less inhibited than with copper only. Finally, we conclude that heavy metals have a negative impact on ecosystem’s dynamic and productivity.
3 Dimensional Display (Engineering)
Nowadays we are witnessing a wave in the development of 3-Dimensional displays. The industry presented us with 3D screens and TVs. However the Stereoscopic technology used in most of these devices proves rather unnatural to our eyes. The aim of this project is to build a 3-Dimensional display that can display ‘real’ 3D images. The entire project is based on the idea that if more than one transparent image is put in front of each other, a 3D image forms. Persistence of vision was used to create the needed layers. A line of LEDs was rotated, synchronizing the LEDs on and off with its speed. This gave the illusion of an image in midair and when more than one layer was placed after it a 3D image formed. This 3-Dimensional display could have infinite possible applications in the future like 3D telephony, 3D games and 3D modelling.
Bacterial Bivalves (Environment)
The subject of my project was investigating microbial contamination of shellfish in the Riverton/Aparima area in Southland, New Zealand. The project was instigated due to a significant number of complaints from the public concerning the quality of shellfish in the area, especially after heavy rainfall. My investigation focused specifically on Greenlip mussels and cockles in the area, which were heavily harvested by members of the Riverton community. My investigation concluded that the current shellfish gathering guidelines were unsuitable for the level of faecal contamination incurred after heavy rainfall, and so environmental regulations for shellfish gathering in the area were altered to ensure the health and safety of the public when gathering shellfish, a widely consumed food group in Southland.
Investigations into an Amphiphile: Small Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations into Temperature Induced Transformations of an Amphiphilic Polymer (Physics)
Z-92 is part of a branch of newly synthesised amphiphilic polymers. Aqueous Z-92 shows changes in structure visual through increased turbidity when heated, and this investigation into polymer physics applies SANS to determine the nature these transformations. Using neutrons from IFE’s JEEP 2 reactor, moderated to long wavelengths, a sample of Z-92 in D2O was irradiated. The scattering was subject to analysis and provides foundation for the investigation’s conclusion. The report concludes that Z-92 goes from linear chain at 25C, to becoming spherical clusters of several chains with distinctive shells around a core at 55C. A mechanism explained by the amphiphilic properties is provided, suggesting the polymer’s hydrophobic trait becomes more significant than the charged and hydrophilic at higher temperatures. These results are important in the pharmacological development of better drug delivery systems, as using related polymers as carriers could secure accurate release of drugs.
Guanxi – the Significance of Relations and Social Networks in Chinese Business (Social Sciences)
This thesis is a social anthropological study of the importance of Guanxi, i.e. relations and social networks, in Chinese business. The research will endeavour to describe and explain the mechanisms involved in Guanxi. The author attempts to achieve a holistic understanding of people, culture and society by means of detailed studies and comparisons of local life. Fieldwork consisting of observation and interviews are the most importance source of research data. Having a large and influential social network – good Guanxi, in other words – is decisive in Chinese business culture. Good Guanxi is a prerequisite for all business dealings in a completely different way than in the West. It can also be used to achieve benefits and to solve conflicts in other contexts. The most important way of building Guanxi is through business meals, which are very unusual in that they are organised on the basis of a specific social situation, they have a specific purpose and follow specific rules.
The Charm of the 'mi' Set (Mathematics)
My work discusses the following property of a point X in the plane: for a given finite set A the sum of squared distances of points in A from a line through X does not depend on the choice of the line. Among other results, I prove that for any finite set A there are exactly one or two such points. In the first case it is the center of mass of a chosen set, in the latter these two points are symmetric with respect to the center of mass. I provide a few examples of applications of this theorem and I consider a number of special cases, in particular a set of vertices of a triangle.
Tracing Vitamin C. How to Preserve the Valuable Vitamin? (Biology)
The research on the vitamin C content was carried out on the Polana variety of raspberries. The content level was determined by means of spectrophotometer. The observed vitamin C content depended mainly on the manner of storage. The raspberries in a MaxiFresh bag were characterized by the highest vitamin C level, whereas the raspberries in a traditional plastic box by the lowest one. It was demonstrated that the changes of ascorbic acid depended to a lesser extent on temperature and storage time. The vitamin C losses ranged from 5.91% to 71.94%. Further research material was cucumbers of Krak F1 variety. The influence of two processing methods and storage time on the ascorbic acid content was examined. As a result of pickling, higher vitamin C content was observed in each sample. The pickle temperature and the manner of cutting had a similar effect on the increase of the examined vitamin. The contrary tendency was observed in gherkins.
What does a Bush Cricket Sing About? (Biology)
Records of Conocephalus discolour’s call indicate that the changes of the ambient air temperature are correlated with overall singing time and the song’s rate (described here as the echeme rate). The other parameters that were studied, i. e. frequency, volume and wing – movement pattern are independent of the air temperature. A description of the stridulatory movement pattern was necessary before its changes could be studied. Focusing on a single echeme oscillogram, I recognized three faint closing movements, each followed by a stronger closing wing move.
Ana Rita Sousa Rocha
Cecília Almeida Moreira
Vânia Patrícia Pinto Rocha
SMART Detection of Protective Effects of Agrimonia eupatoria L. on DNA Damage (Medicine)
This study reports the strong DNA protective activity of Agrimonia eupatoria L., a folk medicine plant widely used for their anticancer properties in the Arouca region, Portugal. Since chemotherapeutic anti-cancer agents can have undesirable side effects, such as induction of DNA damage in normal cells, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential antimutagenic properties of agrimony extracts. Combined in vivo exposure with the antineoplastic compound doxorubicin (DOX), which is known to induce DNA damage, was utilized to evaluate the potential protective effects of agrimony extracts. For this purpose, D. melanogaster wing SMART test was used, where loss of heterozigosity of marker genes which are phenotypically expressed on the fly wings allows the simultaneous evaluation of mutagenic and recombinogenic effects. In flies exposed to both components, the assessment of wing mutant spots frequency indicates that agrimony strikingly suppresses the negative effects of DOX.
Beatriz Gonçalves Crisóstomo Esteves
Daniel José Rodrigues Roque Dos Santos
Marisa Alves Cristovão Paulino
Honey under Investigation (Biology)
The aim of the project “Honey under Investigation” is to analyse and divulge some biochemical properties of honey to local non-professional beekeepers and clarify a few empirical views about honey’s health benefits. Biochemical analysis on pH, free acidity, antioxidant activity, phenol content, intensity of colour, and electrical conductivity were carried out for several honey samples (home-made/commercial and from different regions of Portugal). The methods used were: spectrophotometry, potenciometric titrations and application of an electrical current in solutions of honey for measuring conductivity. Pollen analyses were performed using optical microscopy observations and antimicrobial activity was tested with the Kirby-Bauer method. We conclude that the home-made and non-manipulated samples exhibited better values of all the studied parameters and, therefore, their health benefit is probably higher than those of the commercially available samples we examined.
The Secret of One Unproved Inequality (Mathematics)
Actuality: in the 21st century we often encounter with notions as arithmetical mean, geometric mean and quadratic mean, these notions are applied in physics, mathematics and computer science but unfortunately we don’t know much about relation between them and besides how they connect with each other.
Methods and techniques: Rearrangements of summands; Method of mathematical induction; Dividing inequality for some parts; Method of comparison.
Energy in a Trip (Engineering)
Urgency: The Urgency of the given work consists that at present time doesn't exist the portable marching wind generator which can work independently without participation of the person. The work purpose: to create and optimize the working model of the field wind generator. Problems: to investigate works not similar themes; to present installation model, considering its features; to create operating installation, according to plan of model; to Optimize separate parts of installation; experimentally to find an optimum arrangement of blades; to optimize external resistance. Methods and receptions: Experimental; Supervision; the Account; Measurement; Research. Result: the working model of the wind generator, suitable for carrying out of field tests is created and optimized. Design features of model and a way of the further improvement of a design are revealed.
Multi Robot (Engineering)
Nowadays the conception of using robots in daily life is getting more and more actual. They can be used in a great number of situations. Among them are: investigators, archeological, or military works or help to disabled persons (invalids). It`s a long and quite difficult process to make a special robots for each type of work, so I decided to make a robot which would be universal. I`ve gathered many electronic devices and connected it all in one universal robot which can help or even replace people in the great number of situations.
Macroscopic Evaluation of Active Substances Content in Saint John's Wort (Biology)
The objective of this work is the use of the possibility to apply theoretical knowledge in harvesting practice in order to increase active substances in harvested drug. We summarized them into simple procedures, which can be applied during the harvest and so determine the content of Pharmacopeia prescribed substances without chemical analysis. Results of experiments showed the linear relationship between hypericin content and the number of hypericin glands in St. John's wort, which confirmed our assumptions.
Determination of the Mosquito Order Representation and the Possibilities of Preventing their Overgrowth (Biology)
The main aim of my work was the determination of the mosquito order representation in my town and the production of an effective, natural resource based repellent containing natural plants extracts and oils. For the sake of fulfilment of my main aim, as well as the partial goals, I carried out the collection of the mosquito samples, which were examined microscopically. I also made use of the experimental trial, thank to which I was testing the repellent effectiveness.
Influence of Magnetic Field on Free-surface Ferrofluid Flow (Physics)
At this work we study breakup of ferrofluid jet in jetting regime, drops separation in dripping regime and influence of magnetic field on these phenomena. According to our information there is no detail study of these phenomena in ferrofluids. In dripping regime magnetic field substantially changes the shape of the drop and dynamic of this process.
Automatic Lock for a School Locker (Engineering)
The main objective of the project is the improvement of the identification systems in schools, but a problem of lockers is specified. The goal has been fulfilled as a new locker has been designed. All the criteria for the new locker has been achieved, the new design of the locker offers instant time spent to unlock the locker, it is extremely easy to use and the human factor is not present anymore. It is an extensive improvement from the versions of locks that are currently used while still retaining the low price. A lock, designed for use in school lockers is assembled using three modules: the access control module, electro-mechanical module and the power supply module. If a lock would become defect for any reason, only the defect module would have to be replaced and the lock would function, which massively reduces the maintaining costs.
Plastic Bottle and Tin Can Separator (Engineering)
Garbage puts a heavy burden on the environment which is a problem we also face at our school. Drink vending machines offer drinks in plastic and tin packaging and are producing large amounts of waste. To solve this problem, we decided to construct a device that would offer a single disposal area and automatic waste sorting system to grind plastic bottles into granules and compress tin cans. We were unable to find relevant literature that would help us with the construction of a waste grinder or press, so we drew plans ourselves. At first glance the waste separator seems to be a simple element, but the possibility of wrong material input and feeding the recyclables too fast, presented a difficult technical challenge. We developed four different solutions to find the most appropriate one. The device is controlled by the programmable logic controller Siemens Simatic S7. All the component parts are bound together in a single housing.
Hopefully, our device will help to a cleaner environment.
Miguel Gómez Garrido
A Study of Double Stars (Physics)
The main objective of this report is to study different double stars in order to determine their optical or physic character, and when it is possible, to find some of their parameters (axis, spacial orientation and period). One of our priorities has been to work on few studied stars, so, single reported stars have been selected. Then, several images from digitized catalogues have been downloaded and analyzed to extract the position of the pair along the studied period. Finally, this data were processed to obtain the character of the pairs and, in some cases, their physical parameters.
Marc Barceló Tost
Handbook of Quenya: Introduction to the Study of Quenya Language and History of the Elves (Social Sciences)
The goals of my research were to deep into the knowledge of the literary universe of JRR Tolkien and to use this knowledge for writing, patterning and editing a fiction textbook of one of the aspects that most called my attention: the fact that there were fictional languages in his books. The paper focuses on one of the languages (Quenya) and explains some of the mythological history of its speakers (the Elves). Firstly, I had to research throughout his works and other authors’, who are very fond of those languages, to establish my own grammatical paradigms and create an easy and attractive method (also visually) for the student. The handbook is completed with accompanying maps, genealogical tables and Elvish letters tables. The result of my research can be found in the wording and editing of the book themselves.
Pablo Almuiña Varela
Arachnids Living in Our Skin. Study of Acari of the Genus Demodex (Biology)
This study was intended to gain a deeper knowledge of certain universal parasites: the so-called Demodex bearing in mind the following objectives: to carry out a study on the prevalence of Demodex in a sample of teachers and students of my high school, and to conduct a study of the specimens found using different microscopy techniques. Sampling was carried out by placing cellophane tape on the nasolabial folds. It has been found out that the presence of Demodex increases with age, and also that males show a higher incidence of these acari. When the samples were taken during the night the number of specimens obtained was very high, thus proving the nocturnal habits of Demodex. The epifluorescence microscopy technique, using the fluorochrome calcofluor White M2R is much better suited to the study of Demodex than the traditional brightfield microscopy. No bibliographical reference has been found describing the use of epifluorescence microscopy to study these acari.
Anna Maria Therese Blum
Erik Anders Rothman
Protein Aggregation in Yeast Cells (Biology)
We have chosen to look further into the ongoing molecular biology research on the anti-aging mechanisms of common yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a field of research which in the long run is believed to help unravel the mysteries of aging in all organisms. We exposed a yeast cell mutant, lot6∆ (lacking the gene Lot6) to hydrogen peroxide-induced stress (simulated aging) under different environmental conditions, one being the under-trial medicinal cancer drug β-lapachone. We then observed the effects on the stressed cells during a period of 24 hours. The results of our tests indicate that Lot6 in some way participates in the stress-recovery process that took part during the 24 hours, and also that the mutant lot6∆ more successfully recovered from stress in comparison to the standard yeast wild-type during these 24 hours. Our results also show that the drug β-lapachone, as well as the gene Lot6, did not affect the degradation of hydrogen peroxide after induced stress.
Victoria Maria Jing Welander
An Investigation on the Effects of Fish Predation on the Population Density, Size Distribution and Wariness of Pacifastacus leniusculus Populations (Biology)
The signal crayfish has been introduced in many Swedish lakes and streams. In most waters they coexist with predators, such as perch and pike, known to feed on signal crayfish. The effects of predators on signal crayfish populations were investigated in two lakes with similar conditions for crayfish, the only exception being no predatory fish present in one of the lakes whereas the other contained both perch and pike. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of perch and pike on the population density, size distribution and wariness of signal crayfish populations. The population density was found to be much higher in the lake without fish predators. The mean length of the crayfish was significantly longer in the lake with predatory fish, 11.4 cm, compared to 9.8 cm in the lake without predators. A greater wariness of the juvenile crayfish in the water with predators was observed.
Anna Maria Gizilgul Welsapar
Hydrogen from Solar Energy and the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Biology)
The main goal is to one day find an energy source which is environmentally friendly and inexpensive. Since, plants can utilize solar energy through photosynthesis scientists have for a long time tried to figure out how to imitate this process so that solar energy can be obtained. When the green algae C.reinhardtii is Sulphur deprived the algae produces H2 which is an energy carrier of solar power. The reason for this is that Sulfur is an essential component of many amino acids and without Sulfur; no de novo protein synthesis takes place. And as a result the PS11 is inhibited, first (there is no replacement for the old PS11) and that creates anaerobic conditions where hydrogenase can operate. Nevertheless, there are many obstacles to overcome to fully understand how the photosynthesis changes when the alga is sulphur deprived. Hydrogenase is O2 sensitive and the algae stops to produce H2 under aerobic conditions.
Pius Markus Theiler
pi Cam - The Development of a Camming Device for Climbing (Engineering)
The project pi Cam describes the development of a revolutionary device for climbing. Camming devices are part of the safety gear used in rock and industrial climbing. They help to create an anchoring point where no preattached bolts exist. The current camming devices are secured in a crack or between two parallel surfaces. The newly invented pi Cam however uses rock protrusions like e.g. flakes, limestone traces or tufa to create anchoring points. Thus, the device enlarges the range of protectable rock formations and increases the safety of the climber. In industrial climbing, too, safety is of the highest priority. On pillars for example pi Cam can provide an anchoring point to workers high above the ground. Obviously pi Cam opens new horizons for climbers in many different situations. It is therefore not surprising that specialists have shown interest in the development and commercial production of this new device and that it has already been applied for patent.*pi=greek small letter.
Sarah Jazintha Katharina Rauber
Migraine Prophylaxis with Botulinum Toxin Type A: Establishment and Analysis of a General Data Pool & Quest for Treatment Response Indicators (Medicine)
With a prevalence of 13% migraine is one of the most frequent neurological disorders observed and according to the WHO also one of the most obstructive diseases existing. This research project focuses, in simple terms, on the use of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the prophylactic treatment of migraine (approved as labeled indication for chronic migraine in the USA and GB since 2010); more precisely, its objectives were A.) to establish and broadly analyse a general database of migraineurs treated with BTX-A, which resulted with 582 patients and a recorded period of over 6 years in the world' s largest database of its kind regarding the number of patients included and the time horizon covered, and B.) to find distinguishing factors underlying treatment responsiveness. On the quest for indicators, the currently proposed theory of Jakubowski et al. and Burstein et al. that responsiveness is linked to headache perception was tested for its reproducibility using a slightly modified study design.
Elena Alda Anna Bertola
Impregnation of a Natural Surgically Implantable Porous Structure for the Controlled Release of Antibiotics (Chemistry)
With a solvent-anti-solvent process entirely developed in supercritical phase (SAS), some hydroxyapatite blocks for dental implantation have been impregnated with antibiotics. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)/CO2 60/40 m/m supercritical solution at 70 bar and 45°C in static condition has been used as process fluid for the transportation of antibiotic (tetracycline and amoxicillin) inside the nanometric hydroxyapatite structure. Antibiotic release from solution to hydroxyapatite has been obtained with a minimum contact time of 1 hour in static conditions by increasing solution composition until more than 70% of CO2 at 200-250 bar and 45 °C. During next stage of pure CO2 flushing at 250 bar and 45 °C takes place NMP evacuation. 5 mg of tetracycline for each gram of hydroxyapatite are obtained, whose 20% is released in a physiological solution. This load is 200 times greater than the one which can be obtained with a simple hydroxyapatite immersion in NMP and pentane liquid solutions.
Study of Eliminating Heavy Metal Ions in Waste Water using Low Cost Natural Absorbant (Chemistry)
Purpose of this study is to investigate the elimination of heavy metals in waste water with hull with the most economic way. First 10ˉ³ Molar standard solutions of Lead II, Zink II, Cadmium II and Copper II ions were prepared in laboratory environment. When the solutions of heavy metals in grape seed, walnut shell and pumpkin seed hull was prepared and kept for a while it was observed that the solution with grape seed was observed to get wormy after 48 hours. As refinement cannot be done in such a solution, it was ceased to work with grape seed and the work was focused on pumpkin seed hull as it was seen that the properties of pumpkin seed to absorb heavy metals was high as the result of the attractions observed. With this study it is determined that pumpkin seed hull can refine the Cadmium metal present in waste water from 10 % up to 89.5%, Lead metal from 58% up to 91%, Zinc and Copper metals from 50% up to 60% and 88%.
Aliye Bihter Günal
Analysis of Optical Activities of Different Honey Samples with Empirical Methods (Physics)
The aim is to compare untreated vs. treated honey and honeydew vs. floral honey by measuring rotation angles by laser. It aims to make a regional map of samples produced by stationary beekeepers and reducing tricks in its production process. Phase difference between right or left circular poles of beam occurs when laser beams pass through optically active matter. Light rotates because of sugar’s chiral structure. The rotation angles of sugar solutions (control group) and honey samples are measured by a photodiode and a protractor. The rotation angles are compared in all samples. HMF is formed as a result of invertase activity in treated samples and is considered to be carcinogenic. Honeydew honey rotates right and floral honey left. Sucrose is found in treated samples but not in untreated samples, suggesting that sucrose may have been added. Invertase breaks sucrose into fructose and glucose; but high temperature during the process damages honey’s structure.
Emir Aycan Bedel
Using Enzymatic Biofuel Cells in Photosynthesis to Produce Electrical Energy (Biology)
The search for cost efficient renewable, eco-friendly, and sustainable energy sources is rampant. In order to contribute to these efforts we integrated biofuel cells into photosynthetic live plant and produced electrical energy. We used new functional polymers and new types of electrodes which decrease the cost and reduce the production time. Additionally, we used a new plant which was not tested before. Our methodology was based on three steps: (i) setup of the original BFC system, (ii) performing experiments in vitro according to various parameters and determination of the optimal conditions of the system (iii) testing the optimised system in a plant in vivo and producing electrical energy from the products of photosynthesis. We achieved to produce and measure 6,804 μW/cm2 (12.6 mA) of energy in vivo conditions, which provides 257,040 times more energy production compared with a same size zinc fibre battery and 756 times more than the highest production from photosynthesis before us.
On Inequalities for the Lengths of Perpendiculars Drawn from a Point to the Sides of a Triangle (Mathematics)
The given project deals with a research of maximal value of geometric mean and harmonic mean of the power of the distances from the point to the sides of the many-dimensional simplex and polygon on the plane. These values have been assessed. The construction of the points, for which this value is obtained, has also been described.
Research Varignon’s Theorem, Generalization Wittenbauer’s and Varignon’s Theorems, Development of them and use Discoveries in Practice (Mathematics)
Mathematics is science. It helps understand us many things in nature, engineering etc. Also it helps us in deciding problems. Most of them we cannot decide without mathematics. Also it develop logic of the human, it is a gymnastic for our brains. So the development of this science is very important for us. Attractiveness of the mathematic is simplicity and versatility. For development of it, we can research not only difficult things. We can also develop classical mathematics. One of the classical geometrical problem – Varignon’s theorem is our object for research. Much literature was studied, many Olympiad tasks were decided, some of the famous facts were proved. Also some authorial tasks and theorems were created. This is development of the geometry. But also we must search practical utility. This is our main problem in near future.
Investigation into Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation (Biology)
If scientists were able to safely convert an adult (differentiated) cell into a stem cell and then into a different cell type, medics could use this to replace damaged cells in the body, for example neurons in Alzheimer’s disease patients or βcells in diabetes patients. There would be no tissue rejection or organ donor problems. However, for this to become a reality, researchers must learn how stem cells differentiate and what determines the cell type into which they differentiate. Investigating the factors that cause embryonic stem cells to differentiate or self-renew is a very exciting area of research. My project looks into the effect Wnt signaling protein has on the likelihood of embryonic stem cells differentiating or self renewing by measuring nanog gene expression. The results indicate that Wnt signaling protein causes cells to form 2 discrete categories: one with a high chance of self-renewal and one with a high chance of differentiation.
Martin Richard Thompson
Optical Characterisation & Mechanical Design for Accurate Imaging (Engineering)
CityScan, designed by the University of Leicester, provides an air quality monitoring system that leads to a tomographic retrieval in urban areas. It was crucial that the data could be related to a known location. An accurate image monitoring system and corresponding analysis software was developed that verified the unit’s accuracy and provided a real time perspective to the air quality data. The design and manufacture of a bespoke mount that securely positioned a webcam in the CityScan unit and the analysis of the webcam image to identify and correct the distortion was undertaken to achieve this. The culmination of this work is a panoramic view, that when superimposed on air quality data, will provide high resolution maps of time varying air quality compounds in context with their surroundings. This will allow side by side comparison of pollution data and visual images, resulting in excellent knowledge of the sources that are responsible for influencing the air quality measurements.
Auto Focusing Methods for Digital Microscopy (Physics)
Many research fields use microscopy to attain close up images of specimens. In order to reach an in focus position many microscopes either require the user to manually search, or use a program to predict the in focus plane. Current programs require many images and are often time consuming, which leads the sample degenerating before the images are taken for research. Therefore I have tested, adapted and implemented an auto focusing technique which requires only three images to determine the location of an in focus image, thus allowing the user to reach the in focus plane in less time, leading to improved images being taken. The algorithm has been integrated onto a custom inverted microscope and is being used to automatically focus tissue under brightfield conditions. The algorithm was found to be accurate when applied up to 14 μm from the in focus plane, which is a suitable distance for applications with multi well plates. This algorithm is currently being used in cancer research.
Efficient Implementation of Tilt Compensated Compass and Depth Camera in Interactive Augmented Reality (Computing)
This project presents a novel interactive augmented reality solution that incorporates an orientation tracking system and a displacement tracking system. The orientation tracking system consists of a tri-axis magnetometer for obtaining an external yaw reference that points to the magnetic north of our Earth, and a tri-axis accelerometer for tilt compensation of the magnetometer and tracking of the pitch and roll of the user's head. The displacement tracking system is based on the Microsoft Kinect. Benefits of this system include: affordable, allows augmented reality to be superimposed on a large space, allows seamless interaction between the user and the augmented world.
Using Amino Acid Analysis to Distinguish Chondritic Meteorites (Physics)
Using amino acid profiles of chondritic meteorites and rocks containing endolithic cyanobacteria, I developed a procedure to reject or accept claims of extraterrestrial life based on amino acid profiles. It is possible that pieces of rocks containing cyanobacteria could have been launched from earth during asteroid impact and landed on mars. The discovery of a terrestrial rock containing cyanobacteria from earth could lead to false claims of extraterrestrial life on Mars. Taking efforts to protect against contamination, and using sandstone and HCl blanks as controls, I used an amino acid analyzer to determine amino acid profiles for the Murchison and Kilabo meteorites and compared them to a desert rock with endolithic cyanobacteria and a stromatolite. Abundance and diversity of amino acids as well as chirality can distinguish terrestrial from extraterrestrial rocks, enabling false claims of life to be rejected.
A Novel Approach to Mapping Protein Interactions during Pilus Biogenesis by using In Vivo Photocrosslinking (Biology)
By understanding the mechanisms of bacterial attachment to host cells, novel methods for fighting bacterial infection can be developed that are less likely to induce bacterial resistance. In this study, protein interactions of uropathogenic Escherichia coli P pilus secretion were mapped. P pili are external structures that facilitate adhesion to kidney epithelial cells, a crucial step in bacterial pathogenesis. Constructed through the chaperone/usher pathway, they are composed of monomeric proteins that are assembled and secreted at the cell surface by an outer membrane usher. The usher’s N terminus contains a disulfide loop region that is required for catalyzing pilus assembly. To map interactions of the disulfide loop region, a synthetic photocrosslinkable amino acid was incorporated into the usher, scanning throughout the loop region. Interactions were captured upon exposure to UV light. Results indicate that the loop domain serves a structural purpose in catalyzing pilus assembly.