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Physics Projects (14)

Belarus
Michail Yekelchyk
The Composite Panel with Adjustable Acoustic Properties

Often same rooms are used for the various purposes. In most cases acoustic suitability of similar rooms for tasks in view neglect or don't reflect at all on it. The purpose of my work: working out the composite panel providing poss. of its acoustic properties changing without dismantles, remotely and with a wide range of regulation. The research technique has been developed. 12 fiberboard panels with different acoustical prop., construction by definition of factor of a sound absorption (a0), 2 disseminating panels have been created. Ultrasonic gauging’s of a sound speed in 8 materials; calculations of factor of a sound absorption for ~ 100 combinations of materials are spent. More than 2500 gauging’s have been spent. The concept of the composite panel with adjustable a0 is created. The patent application on useful model is submitted (No. u20110272). Research allows dynamic change of a0, on the average: ~50 % in a freq. range 32 to 16.000 Hz, and on ~100 % on freq. ν1 = 500 Hz; ν2 = 200.
Stand 61

Belgium
Yoni Geerinck
Ruben Geerinck
Eline Meul
Frostal

Nowadays a lot of energy is still lost as so called “non –profitable heat”. This is thermal energy with small temperature difference like cooling water and exhaust gases. The same kind of energy is abundant in the natural environment: solar heat, ocean currents, low geothermal activity. FROSTAL stands for Fully Rotational Stirloïd Alternator. This engine recovers the “lost heat” and transforms it in useful mechanical energy. It is based on the Stirling cycle but performs much better than the original design. With an exotic heat gathering system, a smart mechanism to turn this energy into dynamic rotation and his speed control, the FROSTAL is an easy applicable engine for every location where a small temperature difference is present.
Stand 62

Estonia
Kees Vanamölder
Studies on Rail Vehicle Dynamics with Applications to Tramline Network

In rail vehicle dynamics an important role in achieving safe and smooth ride is played by tram or railway track gauge. In this study the focus is on the influence of track gauge to vehicle dynamics and track geometry. Analytical methods based on the equations of vehicle motion were developed and implemented. Experiments of the three-dimensional dynamics of passenger train coaches were carried out on selected railway lines during trial runs. It was concluded that on standard gauge track the maximum allowable speed reaches only up to 10 km/h higher value compared to narrower gauge. The advantages of the standard gauge over the narrower ones were determined. The conclusion was made that in design of express tram lines or light rail systems the meter gauge (in Tallinn’s case 1067 mm) tracks can be considered as suitable alternatives for the standard gauge (1435 mm) tracks. The conclusion is valid for construction of new or upgrade of existing tram, light rail or railway lines worldwide.
Stand 63

European Schools
Stijn Hofstee
Danylo Matselyukh
Kite Based Wind Generation

A wind generator has been built using a kite, which is smaller, cheaper and requires less maintenance than a modern Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. It can be placed in a wider range of locations and is easier to erect than a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. We settled on a design that used the horizontal movement of a kite while it was doing a ‘figure of eight’ to turn a DC motor which produced electricity. A mechanism was made which converted the side to side rotation of the kite into only one direction, which was then geared up significantly finally driving a generator. So far, the kite has been controlled by an RC system but advances have been made to teach an AI system to control it using a method called supervised learning.
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France
Manuel Coffin
Simon Thomas
Thomas Roussel
The Boule De Fort

The "boule de fort" is a game from Anjou (a French region). The aim is to reach a little ball called the “maître” with bigger balls, which have a side heavier than the other. It is played on a curved court, which measure 20 by 7 m. The ball has curved trajectories. We studied them on a real court and on a model we made. So we understood the ball’s movements. Then, we tried to win a game by using a scientific method. We made several launches with different adjustments (initial speed, direction…) and we noted the landing point. So we knew how to launch the ball if we wanted it to go to a precise point. This method worked with a relative precision and to improve it, we recreated our model on a computer to make virtual launches.
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Germany
Benjamin Walter
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy of Coronene Molecules on Germanium (111)

During an internship, Benjamin Walter investigated the interaction between coronene, an organic molecule and a germanium surface. Germanium has a crystalline structure and is a semiconductor. The young researcher posed the basic question: is it possible to synthesize graphene with this combination of materials? Graphene is a semiconductor-of-the-future that could revolutionize electrical engineering in the next 50 years. The 16-year old student performed his research with the aid of scanning tunnelling microscopy. He was able to show that creation of graphene was not possible with this technique. He also succeeded in uncovering relevant information on the geometric and energetic aspects of the interaction between molecule and substrate.
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Italy
Andrea Emilio Amedeo Bracesco
Jacopo Prinetto
Federica Villa
Following Kepler's Path - an Estimate of Jupiter Mass

This project was finalized at calculating the mass of Jupiter through observing the same four satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) which both Galileo and Kepler used to follow with their means almost 400 years ago. This project required several on-the-ground experiences at the Astronomical Observatory of Merate which greatly enriched our knowledge about some astronomical related subjects that had been studied at school. We started from getting and analyzing orbital data by professional telescopes and programs and this was exciting. Finally we ended up acquiring images by a commercial digital camera and writing down a few C++ codes and the results were surprising. We measured a value of Jupiter mass of 1,92*1027 kg that is very close to the best known estimate of that. More than that on Kepler’s path we found that the curiosity to explore and to practice are the real tools anyone approaching a scientific experience actually cannot miss.
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Latvia
Jana Chaplinska
Janis Kalnins
Research and Application of Two-Side Active Organic Solar Battery based on Grätzel Cells

Fossil fuels contribute to global warming, but the available solar cells based on silicon are with high CO2-footprint and expensive. The alternatives are organic solar cells, so Jana and Janis decided to investigate possible advantages of them. They chose Grätzel`s cell due to understandable design and possibility to create them without expensive technologies. To increase the cell efficiency they used organ metallic compound ruthenium complex – a dye which is necessary for electron transfer, TiO2 paste and TiO2 nanotube layer for faster electron transfer, and also a thermofilm, an epoxide and parafilm PM-992 to prolong the functioning of the Grätzel cell. The cells were made of glass coated with ITO or of the lavsan film coated with ITO, which makes them lighter, flexible and more available. The authors created the ‘’Sun tree” with the Grätzel cells on both sides and determined the increase of the efficiency with the research of the Grätzel cells’ photo electrical properties.
Stand 68

Norway
Espen Bernton
Investigations into an Amphiphile: Small Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations into Temperature Induced Transformations of an Amphiphilic Polymer

Z-92 is part of a branch of newly synthesised amphiphilic polymers. Aqueous Z-92 shows changes in structure visual through increased turbidity when heated, and this investigation into polymer physics applies SANS to determine the nature these transformations. Using neutrons from IFE’s JEEP 2 reactor, moderated to long wavelengths, a sample of Z-92 in D2O was irradiated. The scattering was subject to analysis and provides foundation for the investigation’s conclusion. The report concludes that Z-92 goes from linear chain at 25C, to becoming spherical clusters of several chains with distinctive shells around a core at 55C. A mechanism explained by the amphiphilic properties is provided, suggesting the polymer’s hydrophobic trait becomes more significant than the charged and hydrophilic at higher temperatures. These results are important in the pharmacological development of better drug delivery systems, as using related polymers as carriers could secure accurate release of drugs.
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Slovakia
Michal Habera
Michal Fabian
Influence of Magnetic Field on Free-surface Ferrofluid Flow

At this work we study breakup of ferrofluid jet in jetting regime, drops separation in dripping regime and influence of magnetic field on these phenomena. According to our information there is no detail study of these phenomena in ferrofluids. In dripping regime magnetic field substantially changes the shape of the drop and dynamic of this process.
Stand 70

Spain
Miguel Gómez Garrido
A Study of Double Stars

The main objective of this report is to study different double stars in order to determine their optical or physic character, and when it is possible, to find some of their parameters (axis, spacial orientation and period). One of our priorities has been to work on few studied stars, so, single reported stars have been selected. Then, several images from digitized catalogues have been downloaded and analyzed to extract the position of the pair along the studied period. Finally, this data were processed to obtain the character of the pairs and, in some cases, their physical parameters.
Stand 71

Turkey
Melisa Tokmak
Aliye Bihter Günal
Analysis of Optical Activities of Different Honey Samples with Empirical Methods

The aim is to compare untreated vs. treated honey and honeydew vs. floral honey by measuring rotation angles by laser. It aims to make a regional map of samples produced by stationary beekeepers and reducing tricks in its production process. Phase difference between right or left circular poles of beam occurs when laser beams pass through optically active matter. Light rotates because of sugar’s chiral structure. The rotation angles of sugar solutions (control group) and honey samples are measured by a photodiode and a protractor. The rotation angles are compared in all samples. HMF is formed as a result of invertase activity in treated samples and is considered to be carcinogenic. Honeydew honey rotates right and floral honey left. Sucrose is found in treated samples but not in untreated samples, suggesting that sucrose may have been added. Invertase breaks sucrose into fructose and glucose; but high temperature during the process damages honey’s structure.
Stand 72

United Kingdom
Natalie Mitchell
Auto Focusing Methods for Digital Microscopy

Many research fields use microscopy to attain close up images of specimens. In order to reach an in focus position many microscopes either require the user to manually search, or use a program to predict the in focus plane. Current programs require many images and are often time consuming, which leads the sample degenerating before the images are taken for research. Therefore I have tested, adapted and implemented an auto focusing technique which requires only three images to determine the location of an in focus image, thus allowing the user to reach the in focus plane in less time, leading to improved images being taken. The algorithm has been integrated onto a custom inverted microscope and is being used to automatically focus tissue under brightfield conditions. The algorithm was found to be accurate when applied up to 14 μm from the in focus plane, which is a suitable distance for applications with multi well plates. This algorithm is currently being used in cancer research.
Stand 73

United States Of America
Jane Cox
Using Amino Acid Analysis to Distinguish Chondritic Meteorites

Using amino acid profiles of chondritic meteorites and rocks containing endolithic cyanobacteria, I developed a procedure to reject or accept claims of extraterrestrial life based on amino acid profiles. It is possible that pieces of rocks containing cyanobacteria could have been launched from earth during asteroid impact and landed on mars. The discovery of a terrestrial rock containing cyanobacteria from earth could lead to false claims of extraterrestrial life on Mars. Taking efforts to protect against contamination, and using sandstone and HCl blanks as controls, I used an amino acid analyzer to determine amino acid profiles for the Murchison and Kilabo meteorites and compared them to a desert rock with endolithic cyanobacteria and a stromatolite. Abundance and diversity of amino acids as well as chirality can distinguish terrestrial from extraterrestrial rocks, enabling false claims of life to be rejected.
Stand 74