Chromosomal Integration of HHV-1
Barbara Schamberger and Kerstin Zimmer applied DNA analysis to investigate the secret behind cold sores. They focused on Herpes Simplex Virus-1, a virus that docks onto cells and transmits its DNA to the host cell. Reproduction starts, the skin is stretched until it breaks and the virus spreads – painful and annoying blisters are the result. Is there a way of protecting yourself from them, or are they hereditary? In order to differentiate between the genome and infection with the virus, the students chose young interviewees because the probability of HSV-1 infection increases at that age. Saliva samples were used to detect the infection. The research students expected to obtain information on inherited virus DNA from hair follicle cells, which are not normally infected by the herpes virus. Through the release of a certain glycoprotein from the cell core, which is used to form the hair sheath, a suitable primer could be created that plays a major role in the reproduction of DNA.
Autotransplantation of Spleen Tissue after Splenectomy
Our goal was to avoid negative effects caused by splenectomy and therefore work out the new method of curing spleen traumas. To find the best place for autotransplantation of spleen tissue, we studied morphological aspects of greater omentum. It should be noted, that we concentrated on the left side of omentum, since it was clear, that for our operation this would be the best place we could find in whole organism. Method we worked out is the following: when the spleen is cut off, healthy parts of it are saved and auto-transplanted in an artificial pocket of epiploon. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is followed by full adherence of tissue in case of partial reduction of autotransplantant. It is a very progressive method that gives us an opportunity to avoid imunodephicit. According to the results above it has a great potential to replace splenectomy as the main method of curing spleen traumas. It will be a very beneficial and safe method for surgeons and mainly for patients.
Investigation of a Novel Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. T lymphocytes play a key role in the pathogenesis of MS. Th1 cells is responsible for sustaining the autoimmune response. In contrast, Th2 cells reduce inflammatory reactions. The activation of lymhocytes is influenced by potassium channels. The inhibition of these channels leads to reduced activation of lymphocytes, and, therefore, to a decrease of the autoimmune reaction. I aimed to observe the differences in lymphocyte activation upon the inhibition of the above channels in the Th1, Th2, CD4 and CD8 subsets in MS compared to healthy individuals. Flow cytometry was used for the investigations. In MS, the reactivity of lymphocytes is increased compared to healthy controls. The activation of lymphocytes can be decreased in MS by blocking the investigated channels. However, not selectively enough, by having an effect on all investigated lymphocytes. Accordingly, further investigation is needed.
The Role of Houseflies (Musca domestica) in Spreading Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are one of the biggest challenges in the 21st century. At this time resistance mechanisms are already understood, however, how bacteria can spread around is still known little. The aim of my study is to investigate how domestic flies can transmit the most common antibiotic resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae from infected areas to residential premises. I discovered that houseflies cannot transmit bacteria distantly; therefore, the highest risk is for people living nearby to contaminated areas such as hospitals. My study shows, that the most contaminated houseflies reside in hospital premises, and when such fly lands on human skin, there is a high probability that the person will be colonized by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can cause complicated and sometimes fatal infections.
Ana Rita Sousa Rocha
Cecília Almeida Moreira
Vânia Patrícia Pinto Rocha
SMART Detection of Protective Effects of Agrimonia eupatoria L. on DNA Damage
This study reports the strong DNA protective activity of Agrimonia eupatoria L., a folk medicine plant widely used for their anticancer properties in the Arouca region, Portugal. Since chemotherapeutic anti-cancer agents can have undesirable side effects, such as induction of DNA damage in normal cells, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential antimutagenic properties of agrimony extracts. Combined in vivo exposure with the antineoplastic compound doxorubicin (DOX), which is known to induce DNA damage, was utilized to evaluate the potential protective effects of agrimony extracts. For this purpose, D. melanogaster wing SMART test was used, where loss of heterozigosity of marker genes which are phenotypically expressed on the fly wings allows the simultaneous evaluation of mutagenic and recombinogenic effects. In flies exposed to both components, the assessment of wing mutant spots frequency indicates that agrimony strikingly suppresses the negative effects of DOX.
Sarah Jazintha Katharina Rauber
Migraine Prophylaxis with Botulinum Toxin Type A: Establishment and Analysis of a General Data Pool & Quest for Treatment Response Indicators
With a prevalence of 13% migraine is one of the most frequent neurological disorders observed and according to the WHO also one of the most obstructive diseases existing. This research project focuses, in simple terms, on the use of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the prophylactic treatment of migraine (approved as labeled indication for chronic migraine in the USA and GB since 2010); more precisely, its objectives were A.) to establish and broadly analyse a general database of migraineurs treated with BTX-A, which resulted with 582 patients and a recorded period of over 6 years in the world' s largest database of its kind regarding the number of patients included and the time horizon covered, and B.) to find distinguishing factors underlying treatment responsiveness. On the quest for indicators, the currently proposed theory of Jakubowski et al. and Burstein et al. that responsiveness is linked to headache perception was tested for its reproducibility using a slightly modified study design.